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Fresh Neurons Seed the Human Striatum Throughout Life

Adapted from a story that originally appeared on the Alzforum.

March 3, 2014. In most regions of the brain, you don’t get a second chance: The neurons you’re born with are the only ones you’ll ever have. Now, researchers have discovered that fresh starts abound in the striatum, a part of the brain that integrates motor and cognitive functions. Measuring tiny traces of carbon-14 that integrated into people’s DNA to date the age of neurons, investigators led by Jonas Frisén at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm report that the striatum receives regular shipments of neural precursors throughout life. Interestingly, striatal tissue from people with Huntington’s disease lacks these newcomers. Reported in the February 20 Cell, the findings reveal a new pattern of adult brain neurogenesis and, if replicated, open up the potential for new treatment strategies aimed at neurodegenerative disease and stroke.

“The study is elegantly done, and they have really reached the limit of what is achievable in humans,” said Mark Mehler at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in New York City. Mehler was not involved in the study. “The work brings in a whole new parameter—that there are constantly renewing neurons in the striatum.”

Continuous birth of new neurons has long been known to occur in two regions of the mammalian brain: the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, and the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle. In both these places, a well of self-renewing neural stem cells gives rise to rapidly proliferating neuronal precursors, or neuroblasts. Frisén’s lab recently showed that at about 700 neurons per day, neurogenesis in the hippocampus occurs at a higher rate than previously thought. Those new neurons might aid in cognition and the formation of memories. However, the fate of neurons generated from the SVZ in people has always puzzled neuroscientists. In most mammals, new neurons migrate from the SVZ to the olfactory bulb, but in humans, the olfactory neuron population is set at birth (see Bergmann et al., 2012).

If not to the olfactory bulb, where do neuroblasts from the human SVZ go? To find out, first author Aurélie Ernst and colleagues checked in the striatum—the SVZ’s next-door neighbor. The researchers stained postmortem brain samples for the neuroblast markers doublecortin (DCX) and polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule PSA-NCAM. They detected small numbers of marker-positive cells in the hippocampus, as expected, but also in the striatum (see image below). None were detected in the cerebellum, a region thought to harbor no new neurons. Most of the DCX-positive cells in the striatum were devoid of lipofuscin, a pigment that accumulates with age, suggesting that the neurons were no more than a few months old. While the researchers couldn’t rule out that the cells came from elsewhere, the most likely source is the nearby SVZ, Frisén said.

Seeding the striatum
A young neuroblast inhabits the adult human striatum. The neuroblast markers DCX (red) and PSA-NCAM (white) distinguish the cell from its elders (nuclei, blue). Image courtesy of Jonas Frisén

To confirm the age of these young-looking neurons, the researchers employed a method they had developed in previous studies: dating cells based on the concentration of carbon-14 in their DNA. Spewed into the atmosphere by nuclear bomb tests starting in 1955, the isotope integrates into the DNA of dividing cells. Since atmospheric levels of C14 have since steadily declined, the researchers can date cells by comparing their DNA C14 levels to the atmospheric record. Ratios of C14 to other carbon isotopes that correspond to those in the atmosphere after a person’s birth indicate that DNA synthesis and cell turnover has occurred.

The researchers used accelerator mass spectrometry to measure C14 in neuronal nuclei collected from 30 people ranging from 3 to 79 years of age. In both the lateral ventricle and the striatum, C14 concentrations corresponded to the amount of isotope in the atmosphere after, not at, birth, indicating that the cells were younger than the tissue donors themselves. The researchers found no evidence of cell turnover in the cerebellum or occipital cortex.

“The new findings are good news for SVZ researchers,” wrote Gerd Kempermann, Center for Regenerative Therapies, Dresden, Germany, in a Cell preview to be published February 27. “While the olfactory path for adult-born neurons seems to be limited, going hand-in-hand with the diminished role for olfaction in humans, SVZ precursor cells may be doing something altogether different, and perhaps even more exciting,” he wrote.

But which cells turn over in the striatum? Two possibilities existed. Interneurons, which make up 25 percent of striatal neurons, forge connections with other neurons in close proximity. Medium spiny neurons, which make up the rest, connect to other regions of the brain. To find out which regenerated, the researchers isolated nuclei from striatal cells, then used flow cytometry to sort them based on nuclear expression of the neuron marker NeuN and the medium spiny neuron maker DARPP32. The investigators chose to sort nuclei rather than whole cells because the approach relies less on the isolation of intact cells, which is difficult from postmortem tissue. C14 measurements showed that interneurons, but not medium spiny neurons, had been replenished since birth. Harmonizing with their C14 findings, a mathematical model used by the researchers suggested that 25 percent of striatal neurons participated in cycling, and that within that population, about 2.7 percent of neurons switched out per year. The turnover rate decreased only modestly with age.

The findings could be particularly exciting for researchers studying Huntington's, which primarily affects the striatum. The researchers looked for differences in cell turnover in the postmortem brains of 11 HD patients. They found no signs of turnover in the striatum of people with intermediate and advanced stages of HD. However, a low level of renewal was apparent in the striatum of two patients who had been in the early stages of the disease when they died. It was unclear if new neurons were absent from patients with later-stage disease because those neurons were no longer being made, or if those new neurons degenerated. It is possible that both are true in HD, said Frisén.

HD is marked by degeneration of medium spiny neurons, not necessarily interneurons. However, interneurons provide the microcircuitry that dictates the output of medium spiny neurons, and the field is gaining an appreciation for the importance of this support role, Mehler said. “Subtle degrees of modulation can have dramatic effects on function, such that the small percentage of interneurons that turn over every year could have a big impact on disease.”

Although repopulating the olfactory bulb appears to be the primary purpose of the SVZ in other mammals, studies in rodents and monkeys have shown that following a stroke, new neurons from the SVZ can switch to seeding the striatum. “Up until this paper, we thought that it would’ve taken some insult like that for those neurons to be rerouted in humans,” Mark Ransome at the University of Melbourne, Australia, who was not involved in the study, told Alzforum. “This paper shows that it is the normal process of the SVZ to populate striatal neurons.” Whether this will make it easier for researchers to harness the pathway and boost neurogenesis in the context of striatal assault remains to be shown, Ransome said.

Frisén agrees, but hopes that boosting striatal neurogenesis may one day help sufferers of stroke, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease. He said, “Just knowing that there is this intrinsic machinery in the human brain makes it tantalizing to try to crank up this process in situations where striatal neurons are lost.”—Jessica Shugart.

Ernst A, Alkass K, Bernard S, Salehpour M, Perl S, Tisdale J, Possnert G, Druid H, Frisén J. Neurogenesis in the Striatum of the Adult Human Brain. Cell. 2014 Feb 19. Abstract

Comments on News and Primary Papers
Comment by:  Tom Burne
Submitted 5 March 2014
Posted 11 March 2014
  I recommend the Primary Papers

Disruption to the striatum has been implicated in schizophrenia, as well as Huntington’s disease. Postmortem studies have shown that schizophrenia may be associated with a deficit in cholinergic interneurons in the striatum, which may contribute to alterations in prefrontal cortex function in schizophrenia (Holt et al., 1999). These disruptions could reflect early neurodevelopmental insults. However, the recent findings from Ernst et al. suggest that a population of striatal interneurons turn over throughout life. Abnormalities in the ongoing repopulation of these cells could have far-reaching consequences for our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and may suggest that the vulnerability to psychosis may extend well beyond periods of early brain development.

There is evidence indicating that some migrant groups have a significantly increased risk of schizophrenia (McGrath et al., 2004). Curiously, both first- and second-generation migrants have an increased risk (Cantor-Graae, 2007). These clues contributed to our initial hypothesis, which suggested that low vitamin D during early development (pre- and perinatal) was associated with schizophrenia (McGrath et al., 2010). Individuals who migrate to cold climates as adults are also at increased risk of schizophrenia. Clinical researchers have noted that young adults with psychotic disorders are more likely to have low vitamin D (Gracious et al., 2012), and this is particularly prominent in dark-skinned migrants (Dealberto, 2013). One of the leading hypotheses used to explain the increased risk of psychosis in dark-skinned migrant groups relates to the experience of chronic "social defeat" (Selten and Cantor-Graae, 2005), and several studies have shown that psychosocial stress during adulthood leads to increased risk for psychosis (van Winkel et al., 2008).

We have been investigating the biological plausibility of vitamin D deficiency and risk of schizophrenia (Eyles et al., 2013). Vitamin D is a potent regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation, and vitamin D deficiency has been shown to alter the gene expression of many cell-cycle genes and apoptotic genes during fetal development, leading to changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis (Ko et al., 2004). Disruption to the process of ongoing neurogenesis in human striatal interneurons could be one plausible mechanism to explain the impact of adult environmental exposures—such as psychosocial stress or vitamin D deficiency—on the risk of schizophrenia.


Cantor-Graae E. Ethnic minority groups, particularly African-Caribbean and Black African groups, are at increased risk of psychosis in the UK. Evid Based Ment Health . 2007 Aug ; 10(3):95. Abstract

Dealberto MJ. Clinical symptoms of psychotic episodes and 25-hydroxy vitamin D serum levels in black first-generation immigrants. Acta Psychiatr Scand . 2013 Dec ; 128(6):475-87. Abstract

Eyles DW, Burne TH, McGrath JJ. Vitamin D, effects on brain development, adult brain function and the links between low levels of vitamin D and neuropsychiatric disease. Front Neuroendocrinol . 2013 Jan ; 34(1):47-64. Abstract

Gracious BL, Finucane TL, Friedman-Campbell M, Messing S, Parkhurst MN. Vitamin D deficiency and psychotic features in mentally ill adolescents: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry . 2012 ; 12():38. Abstract

Holt DJ, Herman MM, Hyde TM, Kleinman JE, Sinton CM, German DC, Hersh LB, Graybiel AM, Saper CB. Evidence for a deficit in cholinergic interneurons in the striatum in schizophrenia. Neuroscience . 1999 ; 94(1):21-31. Abstract

Ko P, Burkert R, McGrath J, Eyles D. Maternal vitamin D3 deprivation and the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle during rat brain development. Brain Res Dev Brain Res . 2004 Oct 15 ; 153(1):61-8. Abstract

McGrath J, Saha S, Welham J, El Saadi O, MacCauley C, Chant D. A systematic review of the incidence of schizophrenia: the distribution of rates and the influence of sex, urbanicity, migrant status and methodology. BMC Med . 2004 Apr 28 ; 2():13. Abstract

McGrath JJ, Burne TH, Féron F, Mackay-Sim A, Eyles DW. Developmental vitamin D deficiency and risk of schizophrenia: a 10-year update. Schizophr Bull . 2010 Nov ; 36(6):1073-8. Abstract

Selten JP, Cantor-Graae E. Social defeat: risk factor for schizophrenia? Br J Psychiatry . 2005 Aug ; 187():101-2. Abstract

van Winkel R, Stefanis NC, Myin-Germeys I. Psychosocial stress and psychosis. A review of the neurobiological mechanisms and the evidence for gene-stress interaction. Schizophr Bull . 2008 Nov ; 34(6):1095-105. Abstract

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